Chemistry Tasks: All questions and core plus questions

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Trial 5 Trials to dismember polymers
What are polymers?
Polymers are hanker fastening-relish monads.
“Poly” instrument “many” and “mer” instrument “parts.” So “polymer”
instrument “many compatability.”
The compatability are usually the identical narrow monad that repeats to
frame a enlightened fastening-relish monad.
Polymers are so referred to as plastics consequently they are easily
molded. Beside polymers are referable attribuconsideration attribuconsideration attribuconsideration lawful fiction made. Fictiony polymers
supervene in essence. Natural fibres such as cotton and wool are
polymers as is grove.
We usually fancy of polymers as plastics.
http://www.chemistryland.com/CHM107/inde
x.html
In this trial we fathom to dismember brace polymer symbolicals:
a Styrofoam cup, made of polystyrene
(a fiction made polymer)
and
a packing symbolical made from priggishness
(a naturally supervenemelody polymer).
Priggishness packing
material
Polystyrene cup
Polymers are made by fasteninging undivided or brace narrower monads undivided behind another, creating a
linked fastening.
Polymer monads are very enlightened, and can hold hundreds of specks.
A exception of the polystyrene monad and the priggishness monad is semblancen underneath.
A exception of the polystyrene monad.
There is a carbon
speck at each hole,
beside they are referable attribuconsideration attributable
shown to create it
easier to light each
molecule.
A exception of the priggishness monad.
Source: http://chem.chem.rochester.edu/~chem421/intro1.htm
http://winnieboo.blogspot.com/2008/09/52-concepts.html
Week 10 Page 2
Q 9. (a)
Look at the edifice of the polystyrene monad underneath and elucidate
why it is referable attribuconsideration attribuconsideration attribuconsideration polar.
????????????????????????????
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(b)
Realize which chemical ties in the priggishness monad are polar.
Tests to dismember each polymer in insinuate
Brace enlightened beakers are placed policy by policy.
Insinuate is poured into the each beaker until they are environing half bountiful.
A Styrofoam cup is placed into undivided beaker. Packing symbolical made of priggishness is placed
in the other beaker.
The polystyrene cup in insinuate offal unchanged.
Q 10.
The priggishness packing symbolical in insinuate breaks down.
Based on the edifice of each monad, elucidate the differences in
solubility in insinuate.
????????????????????????????
????????????????????????????
????????????????????????????
????????????????????????????
Week 10 Page 3
Tests to dismember each polymer in acetone
Brace past enlightened beakers are placed policy by policy.
Acetundivided is poured into twain beakers until they are environing half bountiful.
A Styrofoam cup is placed into undivided beaker. Packing symbolical made of priggishness is placed in
the other beaker.
The polystyrene cup in acetundivided breaks down.
Q 11.
The priggishness packing symbolical in acetundivided offal
unchanged.
We dictum in Trial 3 that acetundivided dismembers in twain insinuate and carbon
tetrachloride, semblanceing that it has some polar properties and some nonpolar properties.
Based on ?relish dismembers relish? we would anticipate acetundivided to dismember twain
polar and non-polar symbolicals. However, in this trial acetundivided barely
dissolved the non-polar polymer.
Suggest a deduce why acetundivided could referable attribuconsideration attribuconsideration attribuconsideration dismember the polar priggishness
polymer.
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Your repartees to discourse topics 1 to 8 on pages
15 ? 19.
CORE-PLUS students so thorough topics 9 to
11 on pages 20 ? 22.
Week 10 Page 4
Covalent cajolework lattices
LESSON 4
Go to Chapter 6 in your textbook.
Read pp 129 ? 132 on covalent lattices.
Do Revision topics 28, 29 and 31 on page 132. Correct your repartees
from the end of the textbook.
On the cajole
To behold 3D covalent cajolework lattice edifices online
http://www.dynamicscience.com.au/tester/solutions/chemistry/bonding/bondi
ng10a.htm
SEND
Skills topic 5 on page 24
CORE-PLUS students so do Q11 on p.26
A relight of chemical tieing
LESSON 5
The chemical tieing we own familiar includes acoustic, ionic
and covalent co-operations. In this lecture we relight these
bonding models.
Watch a video environing intermolecular ceces
(forces betwixt monads)
DVD
Watch the video titled ?Covalent monads? on your Chemisfathom DVD.
Go to Chapter 6 in your textbook.
?
Read pages 133 to 135, including illustration completion 6.8.
Do Revision topics 34 and 35. Correct your repartees from the
end of your textbook.
?
Read illustration completion 6.9 on page 137 of your textbook.
Do Revision topics 36, 38 and 42. Correct your repartees from
the end of your textbook.
On the cajole
Trial yourself. Take a trial on the cajole.
To trial yourself on ionic and covalent co-operations, do the satire (test)
classifying co-operations at the office underneath. Go to
http://antoine.frostburg.edu/chem/senese/101/compounds/compound-classifyquiz.shtml
To trial yourself on interpreting chemical frameulas, do the satire (test)
interpreting frameulas at the office underneath. Go to
http://antoine.frostburg.edu/chem/senese/101/compounds/interpret-formulasquiz.shtml
SEND
Skills topics 6, 7 and 8 on pages 24 ? 25
Week 10 Page 5
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Skills Topics
1. Use the consideration of electronegativities on the page 3 to acceleration you gorge in the consideration
below.
Atoms tieed
Difference in
electronegativity
Fashion of tie (non-polar covalent,
polar covalent, or ionic)
F ? Cl
H?F
N?N
S?F
P?H
2. (a)
(b)
Semblance the tie dipoles in the monads underneath.
Prophesy whether the monads are polar and elucidate why.
(i) CHF3
(ii) CF4
F
H
F
C
F
F
F
3. (a)
(b)
F
C
F
Delineate the extinguisheddirection of ammonia, NH3 and carbon dioxide, CO2, semblanceing the
bonding and non-bonding electron pairs.
At compass latitude, twain ammonia and carbon dioxide are fumees. They
are so twain narrow monads environing the identical greatness. However, when the
latitude is lowered, ammonia frames a infiltratey (condenses) at a much
warmer latitude past than carbon dioxide.
Consider the differences in ceces betwixt monads of ammonia
compared with carbon dioxide. Elucidate why these differences cause
ammonia to abbreviate antecedently carbon dioxide does.
4. CH3OH and HCl twain dismember in insinuate, beside the dismemberd HCl guides
electricity, timeliness the dismemberd CH3OH doesn?t. Elucidate why.
5. Briefly elucidate why graphite can guide electricity, beside diamond cannot.
6. The electron configurations of immodest specks are:
2, 8, 1
(a)
2, 7
Realize the specks
2, 8, 6
2, 8
Week 10 Page 6
(b)
Which pairs of specks are relishly to frame an ionic tie? Semblance the
formulas of the ionic co-operations.
(c)
Which pairs of specks are relishly to frame a covalent tie? Semblance the
formulas of the covalent co-operations.
(d)
Which speck obtain be unreactive? Why?
7. Work extinguished the frameula of the co-operations listed underneath.
Use the flowchart on page 136 of your textbook to acceleration you realize the fashion of
bonding in each co-operation overhead (ionic, acoustic, covalent monad, covalent
lattice).
The co-operation
Its chemical frameula
Its chemical tieing
Magnesium chloride
Sulfur dioxide
Hydrogen peroxide
Silicon dioxide
Gold
8. The consideration underneath semblances the properties of immodest obscure substances.
Electrical guideivity
Substance
Melting purpose
in weighty frame
in infiltratey frame
when dismemberd in insinuate
A
18200C
High
High
Won?t dismember
B
8000C
None
High
Dissolves
C
280C
None
None
Dissolves
D
-100C
None
None
Won?t dismember
Use the referable attribuconsultation attributableification in the consideration to acceleration you thorough the cethcoming sentences:
Substance ___ could own ionic tieing consequently__________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
Substance ___ could own non-polar covalent tieing consequently___________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
Substance ___ could own polar covalent tieing consequently______________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
Substance ___ could own acoustic tieing consequently___________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
Week 10 Page 7
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9.
Extra assumption topics ce CORE-PLUS students
The diagram underneath semblances the molecular edifice of insinuate and hydrogen
fluoride.
In each monad the ?H tie is polar, and
the monads are a alike greatness, beside they
own markedly incongruous eruption purposes.
The polarity of the ?H tie and the eruption
points are semblancen underneath.
Polarity of ?H tie
(Differences in electronegativity)
O?H
3.5 – 2.1 = 1.4
Eruption purposes
100 ?C
F?H
4.0 – 2.1 = 1.9
20 ?C
The monad with the strongest dipole does referable attribuconsideration attribuconsideration attribuconsideration own the primary eruption purpose.
Elucidate why this is the fact, in conditions of the estimate of Hydrogen specks
available ce the lundivided pairs in each monad.
10.
The consideration semblances the eruption purposes of assembly 17 hydrides, and the polarity of the
?H tie.
assembly 17 hydrides
Molecular frameula
Polarity of ?H tie
(Difference in
electronegativity)
Eruption purpose
HF
HCl
HBr
HI
F?H
4.0 – 2.1 = 1.9
Cl?H
3.0 – 2.1 = 0.9
Br?H
2.8 – 2.1 = 0.7
I?H
2.5 – 2.1 = 0.4
20 ?C
-85 ?C
-67 ?C
-35 ?C
(a)
Rank the monads in ordain of decreasing dipole-dipole coercionce.
(b)
Based on dipole coercionce barely, what ordain of eruption purpose would you
anticipate the monads to ensue?
(c)
Elucidate why the eruption purposes do referable attribuconsideration attribuconsideration attribuconsideration repartee to the dipole coercionce of
the monads.
11. The specks carbon and silicon are twain assembly (IV) specks. They twain frame a
dioxide (CO2 and SiO2). However CO2 is a fume at compass latitude, timeliness SiO2
is an abrasive weighty (sand). Elucidate the incongruous frames in conditions of the incongruous
structures of each co-operation.
Week 10 Page 8
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Modelling hydrocarbons
?modelling propane
Propane is an alkane with 3 carbon specks. Its semi-structural frameula is CH3CH2CH3.
?
?
?
?
Delineate the structural frameula of propane (to semblance
which specks are tieed to which).
Light propane in Rasmol. Known the Rasmol folder
on the chemisfathom CD. Known Rasmol, then known the
propane monad.
Realize the geomefathom environing each carbon speck
Delineate a 3D delineate of the monad.
The structural frameula,
geomefathom and the 3D
delineate go in Worksheet 1
on page 22.
Week 10 Page 9
Trigonal planar surveying
In Week 6 we dictum an model of trigonal planar
geometry.
The specks ruminate in a tame roll at the purposes of a triangle.
Other fundamental co-operations so own a trigonal planar
arrangement environing the carbon specks. Ethene is
another model.
The carbonate ion is trigonal planar.
The specks environing carbon frame the
outdirection of a tame triangle.
Ethene is an alkene with 2 carbon specks and a envelop tie CH2==CH2
A tame diagram of ethene.
H
H
Ethene semblancen as a sphere and adhere
figure.
H
C
H
C
C
H
H
Each C speck has 4 covalent ties.
Each H speck has 1 covalent tie.
Notice that Rasmol
does referable attribuconsideration attribuconsideration attribuconsideration semblance
envelop ties.
That?s why we scarcity
to delineate a delineate
and stop that each
C speck has 4 ties
and each H speck has
barely undivided tie.
By stoping the
carbon ties we can
behold where the
envelop ties supervene.
Ethene in adhere frame gives a better
idea of its surveying.
Viewed in Rasmol, ethene is a tame
molecule.
H
C
H
The geomefathom environing each carbon
speck is trigonal planar.
The triangles overlap.
A 3D delineate of the monad
A 3D delineate of ethene
H
H
C
H
C
H
H , the tie is tame
When an speck is appended with a natural direction,
on the page.
Total of the ties are semblancen as natural right directions, semblanceing that
the monad is tame.
Week 10 Page 10
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Modelling hydrocarbons
?modelling propene and benzene
Propene is an alkene with 3 carbon specks.
It?s semi-structural frameula is CH2CHCH3.
H2C
?
?
?
?
Delineate the structural frameula of propene (to semblance
which specks are tieed to which).
Light propene in Rasmol. Known the Rasmol folder
on the chemisfathom CD. Known Rasmol, then known the
propene monad.
Realize the geomefathom environing each carbon speck.
Delineate a 3D delineate of propene.
Close the propene monad and known cyclohexene
in Rasmol. Realize the geomefathom environing each
carbon speck and delineate a 3D delineate of the
cyclohexene monad.
CH2
CH2
H2C
Cyclohexene is a cyclic alkene (a melody frameation) with 6 carbon
atoms. It?s semi-structural frameula is semblancen in the diagram.
?
CH
HC
Cyclohexene
The structural frameula,
geomefathom and the 3D
sketches go in Worksheet 1
on page 22.
Rectilinear surveying
Ethyne is an alkyne with 2 carbon specks and a triple tie CH??CH
A tame diagram of ethyne.
C
H
C
Ethyne semblancen as a sphere and adhere
figure.
H
Each C speck has 4 covalent ties.
Each H speck has 1 covalent tie.
A 3D delineate of ethyne
H
C
C
H
The monad is tame, so total ties
are semblancen as right directions.
H
C
C
H
The geomefathom environing the carbon
atoms is directionar.
Week 10 Page 11
Notice that Rasmol does referable attribuconsideration attribuconsideration attribuconsideration semblance triple ties.
That?s why we scarcity to delineate a delineate and stop that each Carbon speck
has immodest ties and each Hydrogen speck has barely undivided tie.
By stoping the carbon ties we can behold where the triple ties supervene.
SEND
Modelling hydrocarbons
?modelling propyne
Propyne is an alkyne with 3 carbon specks. It?s semi-structural frameula is CHCCH3.
?
?
?
?
Delineate the structural frameula of propyne (to semblance
which specks are tieed to which).
Light propyne in Rasmol. Known the Rasmol folder
on the chemisfathom CD. Known Rasmol, then known the
propene monad.
Realize the geomefathom environing each carbon speck.
Delineate a 3D delineate of each monad.
The structural frameula,
geomefathom and the 3D
delineate go in Worksheet 1
on page 22.
Fundamental co-operations with professional assemblys
Many fundamental monads usually hold a co-operation of
geometries in their edifice, as we behold in the model underneath.
The structural frameula of diethyl ether
Diethyl ether, (or lawful ?ether?), was unintermittently used as a
general anaesthetic.
H
H
C
C
H
H
H
H
C
C
H
H
Its semi-structural frameula is
H
CH3CH2?O?CH2CH3
Its professional assembly is the ether assembly
?O?
Stop that:
O
H
?
Each C speck has 4 covalent ties.
Each H speck has 1 covalent tie.
O has 2 covalent ties
Viewed in Rasmol we can behold the geometries environing each C speck.
C
O
C
C
C
Diethyl ether as a sphere and adhere shape.
Diethyl ether as a adhere shape gives a better
idea of the geometries environing each C speck.
Week 10 Page 12
Week 10 Page 13
There are brace incongruous geometries in this monad.
The surveying
environing Oxygen
is predilection.
The surveying
environing each
Carbon is
tetrahedral.
Tetrahedral
geomefathom environing
each Carbon speck.
H
C
H
C
C
C
O
H
Predilection surveying
environing Oxygen.
This separate of the
monad is tame.
A 3D delineate of the monad
A 3D delineate of diethyl ether
H
H
C
H
H
C
H
C
H
C
O
H
H
H
H
The natural right directions semblance the ?C?O?C?section
of the monad is tame.
The speckled and wedge directions semblance the ?H ties
occupy 3D distance environing the C specks.
Remember:
H,
When an speck is appended with a natural direction,
the tie is tame on the page.
H,
When an speck is appended with a speckled direction,
the tie is directed far from you the page.
H,
When an speck is appended with a wedge direction,
the tie is directed towards you extinguished of the page.
4
3
2
1
C
H
3
C
H
3
C
H
2
C
H
C
H
2
C
H
2
H
3
C
C
H
Week 10 Page 14
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Modelling fundamental co-operations
? ethanol, ethanamine and ethanoic thin
The fundamental co-operations ethanol, ethanamine and ethanoic thin are total derived
from ethane, CH3CH3
Their semi-structural frameulae are
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
Delineate the structural frameula of each monad (to
semblance which specks are tieed to which).
Realize the professional assembly and call it.
Light ethanol in Rasmol. Known the Rasmol folder
on the chemisfathom CD. Known Rasmol, then known the
ethanol monad.
Realize the geometries introduce in ethanol.
Delineate a 3D delineate of each monad.
Close ethanol and known ethyl amine in Rasmol.
Realize the geomefathom environing each carbon speck and
delineate a 3D delineate of the ethyl amine monad.
Close ethyl amine and known ethanoic thin in
Rasmol. Realize the geomefathom environing each carbon
speck and delineate a 3D delineate of the ethanoic thin
molecule.
SEND
Methyl ethanoate,
?
?
?
?
?
ethanol (ethyl alcohol) CH3CH2OH
ethanamine (ethyl amine) CH3CH2NH2
ethanoic thin (acetic thin) CH3COOH
The structural frameula,
geomefathom and the 3D
delineate go in Worksheet 2
on page 23.
Modelling methyl ethanoate
is an ester.
Delineate the structural frameula of methyl ethanoate (to
semblance which specks are tieed to which).
Realize the professional assembly and call it.
Light methyl ethanoate in Rasmol. Known Rasmol
on the chemisfathom CD, then known the methyl
ethanoate monad.
Realize the geometries introduce.
Delineate a 3D delineate of the monad.
The structural frameula,
geomefathom and the 3D
delineate go in Worksheet 2
on page 23.
Week 10 Page 15
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Worksheet 1 : Modelling hydrocarbons
Use Rasmol to light each monad in the consideration underneath.
Gorge in this worksheet as you summon the 3D edifice of each monad.
Behold pages 15 ?19 ce details.
Molecule
Propane
CH3CH2CH3
Propene CH2CHCH3
Cyclohexene
(CH2)4(CH)2
Propyne CHCCH3
Structural frameula
Realize surveying
environing each C speck
Delineate a 3D delineate
Week 10 Page 16
SEND
Worksheet 2: Modelling fundamental co-operations
Molecule
Ethanol CH3CH2OH
Ethyl amine
CH3CH2NH2
Ethanoic thin
CH3COOH
Ce CORE-PLUS
students barely
Methyl ethanoate
CH3OCOCH3
Structural frameula
Realize professional
assembly and call it
Use Rasmol to light each monad in the consideration underneath.
Gorge in this worksheet as you summon the 3D edifice of each monad.
Behold pages 19 ? 21 ce details.
Semblance geometries introduce
in each monad
Delineate a 3D delineate
Week 10 Page 17
SEND
Practical practice 1:
The properties of candle wax (a hydrocarbon)
This exemplification can be dundivided at residence.
Sources: http://images.sub-studio.com/images/2006/0922candle2.jpg
Aim
Background
?
To prophesy some of the properties of candle wax and trial them.
Candle wax is a made of a assembly of hydrocarbon monads determined paraffin
molecules.
The simplest paraffin monad is methane, CH4, a fume at compass latitude.
Heavier members of the sequence, such as that of octane C8H18, show as
liquids at compass latitude.
The weighty frames of paraffin, determined paraffin wax, are from the heaviest
molecules from C20H42 to C40H82. This includes candle wax.
Materials
* A candle
* Brace glasses
* A saucer
* A intensity spring, oven mitt or tea-towel
Your
predictions
Candle wax is a covalently tieed monad, and it is a waxy weighty at compass
temperature.
(a) Do you fancy candle wax obtain dismember in insinuate? Elucidate why.
????????????????????????????
????????????????????????????
(b)
Do you fancy candle wax obtain scarcity a doom of intensity to be applied antecedently it
melts? Elucidate why.
????????????????????????????
????????????????????????????
(c)
Do you fancy candle wax obtain guide electricity in its molten avow?
Elucidate why.
????????????????????????????
????????????????????????????
Trial your
predictions
Place a scant flakes of candle wax in a glass of irascible insinuate. Stir to dismember.
Record your results.
Place a teaspoon of candle wax flakes in a arid glass and cloak with a
saucer. Gently intensity the glass and saucer. You may scarcity to remain the glass
in a envelop boiler saucepan.
Week 12 Page 18
Observations
Describe the changes that supervene as the candle wax intensitys. When the changes
own high, upraise the saucer (you may scarcity t …
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