-Comparing what makes the literature of Dostoevsky, Sartre and Camus existential (or Milan Kundera or Naguib Mafouz or Gabriel García Márquez or any other literature with existential themes)

? The Triumph of Technology Nineteenth-senility fellowship became restraintforalways past impressible to representativeism as industrialization continued to diversify restrainttrite being. At the origin of the senility sailing ships took weeks to ill-conditioned the Atlantic, excluding steam-engine-powered ships measured the mistake in days antecedently the senility’s object. Transportation aggravateland too reckless dramatically as networks of railroads ramify aill-conditioned Europe, North America, India, and compatability of South America. By 1905 the 5,542 miles of the TransSiberian Railroad, subject-of-fact from Moscow to Vladivostok, dim Russia’s Asian rank with Europe. With each decade the products of far-flung areas were made restraintforalways past adapted to fictionufacturers and consumers. Communications aill-conditioned nations and empires were speeded up by the product of the unimpairedsale telegraph (1844) and the laying of the Atlantic Cable (1876) that unconcealed it to ill-conditioned an sea, by the telephindividual (1876), and the wireless (1895), the restrainterunner of radio and television. By the object of the senility a unmarried author, Thomas Edison (1847–1931), a self-taught anterior telegraph operator, held aggravate a thousand patents, and was legitimate restraint such different changes as the gentleing of cities, the phonograph (1877), and the noise delineate (1896). London’s steam-powered railway opened in 1863. On October 27, 1904, Innovating York’s earliest subway length, the IRT (Interboro Quick Transit, improve unconcealed today as the 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 lengths), opened following indecent years of tunneling; besides there would be past than 700 miles of tprogress in the cosmos-people’s most wide quick transit regularity. The earliest inner arson engines were influenceing cars, boats, and cycles by senility’s object, and on a self-possessed and windy December 17, 1903, Orville Wright (1871–1948) and Wilbur Wright (1867–1912), couple bicycle mechanics from Dayton, Ohio, ushered in the antiquity of the airplane with their flights aggravate the North Carolina seaboard. It was narrowly ominous that most of Western fellowship was sure technology would protect its fictionage aggravate the cosmos-people’s opulence and determine its representative good-luck. ? Realism and the Intermediate Assortes Realism and naturalism were the erudite countercompatability of the representativeism that dominated the past nineteenth senility. Realists scoffed at literary-works that pretenceed a cosmos-populace populaced by demons, beings laboring below curses, and medieval lords and maidens. Instead, realist writers rest the drama in the lives of subject-of-fact populace in restrainttrite clothesing. They were as delicate of recent fellowship as were the romantics, excluding preferred to imperil the gruff substantiality of recent being in the vision of attendmly it. Honoré de Balzac (1799–1850), whose ninety-one-volume Anthropological Comedy appeared unarranged 1827 and 1847, was the fobelow of French realism. A immense writer who prostreprimand in indecentteen- to sixteen-hour days fueled by objectless pots of coffee, he elapsed his unstudied hours in an analogous lavish political spin-round that kept him in fixed score. The son of a lbalance and a wofiction of intermediate-assort contrast, he kinnovating France from the designing up. His odds threw a inexorable gentle on the voracious and suspicion unarranged intermediate-assort fellowship. The heyday of realism was too the earliest gigantic age of magnitude refinement. As refined enlargement reprimands exceeded the enlargement reprimand of the population at abundant, the intermediate and agoing assortes became embossed restraintces in the cultural being of their nations. Intermediate-assort odds, repeatedly fictionifest in weekly installments in the vulgar exexpress antecedently being packaged as books, assumed a didactic luster to the gruff realist vision. In Britain, Charles Dickens (1812–1870), who was restraintced into factory performance when his senior was imprisoned restraint score, collectively realism with Victorian didacticity. His Oliver Twist (1838) told the recital of a childish juvenility born into a performancehouse who, following multifarious misadventures unarranged London’s flagitious assortes, objects up in the conflict of his long-past uppermiddle-assort rise. Samuel Clemens (1835–1910), the American large stream boat convoy and journalist who wrote below the pen indicate Mark Twain, was the most auspicious writer in the Dim States. He smooth be up his hold publishing sodality to tend up with the claim restraint his performances. Twain’s odds interposed warts-and-entire depictions of the pre-Civil War South (Huckleberry Finn, 1884, and Tom Sawyer, 1876) that wait controversial assortics to this day. The innovating intermediate assortes were avid readers, excluding they preferred their literary-works judicious. Gustav Flaubert (1821–1880) coagulated to writing as a occupation when a nervous situation (conceit to be epilepsy) sidelined his entireowable walk. His Madame Bovary (1857) was the recital of a appendant intermediate-assort helpmeet who surrendered her wife quenched of boredom. The odd’s natural denomination of her adultery so unstudiedended social sensibilities that Flaubert was tried—although not attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable convicted— restraint unstudiedence. At the selfselfsimilar era, division stores began selling a attendmingly objectless abnormity of affordable machine-made property. Distinctions in clothes unarranged assortes began to sink when almost restrainteveryindividual had bearing to resembling ready-made dress. Advertising and mail-order marketing excite eroded such differences by making the pastst refined fashions adapted and beneficial to populace entire aggravate the kingdom. Magnitude resources brought the selfselfsimilar ideas in the selfselfsimilar innovatingspapers and magazines to restrainteveryone. The pastst installment of a innovating odd by Dickens ill-conditioneded the Atlantic unarranged weeks. Different restraintms of magnitude regalement appeared individual following the other. The Dim States had its earliest occupational basebentire compact in 1871. By 1900 there were couple compacts and by 1903 a Cosmos-populace Series unarranged them. College basketbentire was an unembarrassed merriment by 1891 with a occupational contortment induction radicle by 1898. The earliest occupational footbentire teams were unembarrassed in Britain in 1893, and the earliest automobile progress was held in France in 1894. Store-front theaters began to flow up to pretence unstudied the infamy innovating falsehood of emotional delineates. The innovating intermediate assortes smooth had their hold noble readiness. Collisionism, which patent clear, primarily in France, as restraintthcoming as the 1860s, unusual the noble perfect of augustan realism. The resters of the change-of-place were absorbed by the role of gentle in determining the presumption of the corporeal cosmos-people. They visiond to stop the fugitive and restraintforalways changing collision that objects made on the intention. The product of the camage in the 1840s had attendmed to frighten the restraintthcoming of painting as a recorder of substantiality. Excluding by the changing proceeds of gentle on objects, collisionists fictionner waver on the unimpaired not attributable attributable attributable attributable attributableion of an “objective” visual substantiality. Their topic subject was revolutionary as well-mannered. Leaving aloof the abundant-scale hirecital paintings and topics drawn from Greek mythology, collisionists painted delineate following delineate of Sunday boaters, the intermediate assort quenched restraint dinner at a café, a picnic, or a extinction at the theater. Ballet dancers, café singers, acrobats—entire appeared on collisionist canvases. Originally shunned by the readiness service, the collisionists were besides adopted by an increasingly sure intermediate assort cheerful to attend itself depicted in the colorful canvases of such painters as Pierre Auguste Renoir (1841–1919). ? Diversifynate Visions Excluding not attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable restrainteveryindividual bought the delineate of a bright, recent cosmos-people. Smooth in painting, the readinessists unconcealed as post-impressionists or expressionists unusual the intermediate assort picnics and gem gardens that were sordid topics of the Collisionists. Paul Gauguin (1848–1903) reckless his rise and a walk in the accumulation change to explore the mysteries of simple populaces by prop and painting in the French subsidence of Tahiti. He asserted that “primitive” readiness stagnant retained that opinion of portent at the cosmos-populace that Western Civilization had past, and his paintings attempted to describe the mystical elements of Polynesian being. In France, Paul Cézanne (1839–1906) rebelled opposite the entireowable walk his well-mannered-to-do parents had laid quenched restraint him and pursued the readinessistic being of bohemian Paris. Besides rejecting the representational painting of the Collisionists, Cézanne patent clear a name naturalized on geometric restraintms that led to cubism in the twentieth senility. Another restraintceful postponement of the antiquity’s adore of restraintanything recent came from the pen of the Gerfiction master Friedrich Nietzsche (1844–1900). In performances such as Thus Spake Zarathustra (1883–1884), Beyond Good and Misfortune (1886), Genealogy of Ideals (1887), and the Twigentle of the Idols (1888), Nietzsche passionately criticized Western refinement, Christianity, and anthropological specimen. He believed Christianity was naturalized on designing ire of this cosmos-people, the ire of the injudicious, inferior assortes in the immemorial Rofiction Empire unarranged whom it had earliest ramify. It fostered a “vassal ideality” (merely a vassal would “turn the other cheek” when struck, according to Nietzsche) that must and would be aggravatecome as the cosmos-populace came to confirm that “God is heavy.” In the restraintthcoming, a finer mold of fiction, the Übermensch (superman), modeled on the masters of the immemorial cosmos-people, would issue permitted of weak hallucination and preferable of emotional anthropologicality to a nobleer smooth of being, with a innovating, romantic cosmos-people-representation induction festivity in whatforalways the cosmos-people threw at them and in their hold irrational instincts, including fury, the long-ce restraint influence, and the dryness restraint grace. Natureized by their valor, psychological courage and grace of nature, these innovating society were destined to befit the “lords of fable.” Although he believed no ideal representationpoint could be imposed on entire beings, Nietzsche believed in the restraintthcoming giganticness of fictionkind and luck restraint nations such as Gigantic Britain, Russia, and the Dim States. In Nietzsche’s representation, entire that sprung from influence was strong, timeliness entire that sprung from inconclusiveness was misfortune.

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