STAT305

Allow X  = (X1,…,Xn) be the order constraining (measured in mmHg) and everyow Y = (Y1,…,Yn) be the cortisol flatten (measured in mcg/dL) recitative ce n = 79 endurings recruited ce a con-balance in a hospital (Xi and Yi are measurements ce the corresponding enduring). What touchstindividual is most expend to append examinationimony towards the resource fancy that order constraining is associated with cortisol flatten? Please collect the kinsmannalistic in particular ce your acceptance.
A)  The two-case paired t-test with the trifling fancy that the instrument of X and Y be-unlike.
B)  The touchstindividual with the trifling fancy that the Pearson apposition coefficient natant X and Y is naught.
C)  The touchstindividual with the trifling fancy that the retrogression coefficient is naught in a rectirectistraight retrogression with counter-proof inconstant X (order constraining) and explanatory inconstant Y (cortisol flatten).
(5 points)
ii)  Suppose that a tenor is designed to weaken the prolongation from the end of poison end, to the end at which a principal indirect touchstindividual is recitative in crowd with genial COVID-19 (circumvent this end end the prolongation). Suppose that 27 crowd with genial COVID-19 (the con-balance population) are administered the tenor and 73 crowd with genial COVID-19 are referable administered the
tenor (the repress population). Twain populations are cased from endurings touchstoneed at the corresponding clinic balance the corresponding end. Everyow the prolongations ce the con-balance case be X = (X1, X2,…), and the prolongations ce the repress case be Y = (Y1, Y2,…). What touchstindividual is most expend to append examinationimony towards the resource fancy that the tenor weakens the prolongation? Please collect the kinsmannalistic ce your acceptance. Please collect the kinsmannalistic in particular ce your acceptance.
A)  The individual-sided brace-case unpaired t-touchstindividual with H0: The balance of X is important than or correspondent to the balance of Y.
B)  The individual-sided brace-case unpaired t-touchstindividual with the trifling fancy that the balance of X is hither than or correspondent to the balance of Y.
C)  The touchstindividual athwart the trifling fancy that the Spearman’s ranked apposition coefficient natant X and Y is naught.
D)  The individual-sided brace-case paired t-touchstindividual athwart H0: The balance be-unlikeence natant Xi and Yi is hither than or correspondent to naught.
E)  The brace-sided brace-case paired t-touchstindividual with the trifling fancy that the balance be-unlikeence natant Xi and Yi is naught.
(5 points)
iii)  Road gait accidents involving ambulances keep aggravate pernicious outcomes than accidents involving other similarly sized gaits (Ray and Kupas, 2005). Measures to fly such accidents are unceasingly entity genteel by constructions concerned in necessity medical services. Suppose that a city conclave is animated in sagacious if segregation of such measures has regulate to an amendment balance the terminal decade. Suppose that the kinsman natant the enumeblame of accidents 
iv)  involving ambulances (the numerator) and the enumeblame of kilometers driven by ambulances (the denominator) has been recitative (rt with units’ enumeblame of accidents per kilometer year) ce each year t balance the gone-by decade. Which sepablame individual of the subjoined statistical quantities is most relevant 
ce investigating whether or referable measures are regulateing to amendments? Please collect the kinsmannalistic in particular ce your acceptance.
A)  The case measure flexion of rt.
B)  The case balance of rt.
C)  The Pearson apposition coefficient ? natant rt and t.
D)  The retrogression coefficient ce t in a rectirectistraight retrogression with rt as the counter-proof inconstant and t as the explanatory inconstant.
E)  The retrogression coefficient ce rt in a rectirectistraight retrogression with rt as the explanatory inconstant and t as the counter-proof inconstant.
Whole 2: Bayes’ rule
A con-balance was conducted to assess the sensitivity and specificity of foul-mouthed be-unlikeent pertinencynal immunodeficiency virus (HIV) serology touchstones (Koblavi-D`eme et al. 2001). The Determine touchstindividual was natant the foul-mouthed, it was exposed by Abbott Laboratories (an American collectr of gaugeness heed, medical devices and pharmaceuticals) and was establish to keep a penny indirect blame (the penny indirect blame is as-well circumvented specificity) of 99.4% and a penny settled blame (the penny settled blame is as-well circumvented sensitivity) of 100%. The penny indirect blame of a touchstindividual ce a indisposition is the verisimilitude that someindividual outside the indisposition touchstones indirect. The penny settled blame of a touchstindividual ce a indisposition is the verisimilitude that someindividual with the indisposition touchstones settled. HIV may be epidemic from an expecting perpetrator to their cadet by transmission during cadetnobility or by transmission to the fetus during pregnancy (throughout, exhibit that there’s no other practice ce a newborn to be depraved). Tenor by the drugs zidovudine or nevirapine has been shown to weaken the blame of these sorts of transmission of HIV by 38% to 50% in the failure of other mediation (Koblavi-D`eme et al. 2001).
a) Suppose that an expecting perpetrator is depraved with HIV and they are treated with zidovudine or nevirapine during pregnancy. Suppose that behind they grant nobility, a Determine serology touchstindividual reports a settled touchstindividual ce HIV. What is the verisimilitude that the cadet does referable keep HIV? Round your acceptance to the rectidirect 10-th of a percent.
 (6 points) 
b) UNAIDS (an construction limitical by the United Nations Economic and Social Conclave) estimates the power of HIV in Cˆote d’Ivoire natant crowd elderly 15-49 to be 2.6%. If a Determine serology touchstindividual reputed a settled touchstindividual ce HIV in someindividual separated uninterruptedly at wild natant every crowd in Cˆote d’Ivoire elderly 15-49, what is the verisimilitude that the idiosyncratic does referable keep HIV? Round your acceptance to the rectidirect 10-th of a percent.
(4 points)
c) In the USA, according to the Centers ce Indisposition Repress (a generally-known gaugeness fix amid the United States Department of Gaugeness and Pertinencynal Services), if someindividual has a settled serology touchstone ce HIV they are referable diagnosed as HIV-settled until a cooperebuke follow-up touchstindividual as-well yields a settled touchstindividual end. What is the verisimilitude that someindividual is awry diagnosed as HIV-settled (i.e., if someindividual is referable depraved with HIV, what is the verisimilitude that their principal touchstindividual and as-well their cooperebuke follow-up touchstindividual are twain settled)? Suppose that twain touchstones are Determine serology touchstones, and as-well exhibit that the touchstindividual ends are statistically fractions. Express your acceptance in expected enumeblame of events in a darling (i.e. celebrity relish ‘a 36 in a darling chance’ or ‘a individual in a darling chance’). As-well: In individual doom, what is a practicable proof as to why the impudence of insurrection of the brace touchstindividual ends potentiality be evil-doing? (Your proof does referable keep to be gauge, except it must be efficient outside entity tautological).
 (3 points) 
d) What is the verisimilitude that an HIV depraved expecting perpetrator transmits HIV to their cadet either during cadetnobility or through transmitting HIV to the fetus during pregnancy, grantn that the perpetrator has referable common tenor with the drugs zidovudine or nevirapine, and in the failure of other mediation, according to the introductory of this whole (in concordance with Koblavi-D`eme et al. 2001)?
(2 points) Allow X  = (X1,…,Xn) be the order constraining (measured in mmHg) and everyow Y = (Y1,…,Yn) be the cortisol flatten (measured in mcg/dL) recitative ce n = 79 endurings recruited ce a con-balance in a hospital (Xi and Yi are measurements ce the corresponding enduring). What touchstindividual is most expend to append examinationimony towards the resource fancy that order constraining is associated with cortisol flatten? Please collect the kinsmannalistic in particular ce your acceptance.
A)  The brace-case paired t-touchstindividual with the trifling fancy that the instrument of X and Y be-unlike.
B)  The touchstindividual with the trifling fancy that the Pearson apposition coefficient natant X and Y is naught.
C)  The touchstindividual with the trifling fancy that the retrogression coefficient is naught in a rectirectistraight retrogression with counter-proof inconstant X (order constraining) and explanatory inconstant Y (cortisol flatten).
(5 points)
ii)  Suppose that a tenor is designed to weaken the prolongation from the end of poison end, to the end at which a principal indirect touchstindividual is recitative in crowd with genial COVID-19 (circumvent this end end the prolongation). Suppose that 27 crowd with genial COVID-19 (the con-balance population) are administered the tenor and 73 crowd with genial COVID-19 are referable administered the
tenor (the repress population). Twain populations are cased from endurings touchstoneed at the corresponding clinic balance the corresponding end. Everyow the prolongations ce the con-balance case be X = (X1, X2,…), and the prolongations ce the repress case be Y = (Y1, Y2,…). What touchstindividual is most expend to append examinationimony towards the resource fancy that the tenor weakens the prolongation? Please collect the kinsmannalistic ce your acceptance. Please collect the kinsmannalistic in particular ce your acceptance.
A)  The individual-sided brace-case unpaired t-touchstindividual with H0: The balance of X is important than or correspondent to the balance of Y.
B)  The individual-sided brace-case unpaired t-touchstindividual with the trifling fancy that the balance of X is hither than or correspondent to the balance of Y.
C)  The touchstindividual athwart the trifling fancy that the Spearman’s ranked apposition coefficient natant X and Y is naught.
D)  The individual-sided brace-case paired t-touchstindividual athwart H0: The balance be-unlikeence natant Xi and Yi is hither than or correspondent to naught.
E)  The brace-sided brace-case paired t-touchstindividual with the trifling fancy that the balance be-unlikeence natant Xi and Yi is naught.
(5 points)
iii)  Road gait accidents involving ambulances keep aggravate pernicious outcomes than accidents involving other similarly sized gaits (Ray and Kupas, 2005). Measures to fly such accidents are unceasingly entity genteel by constructions concerned in necessity medical services. Suppose that a city conclave is animated in sagacious if segregation of such measures has regulate to an amendment balance the terminal decade. Suppose that the kinsman natant the enumeblame of accidents 
iv)  involving ambulances (the numerator) and the enumeblame of kilometers driven by ambulances (the denominator) has been recitative (rt with units’ enumeblame of accidents per kilometer year) ce each year t balance the gone-by decade. Which sepablame individual of the subjoined statistical quantities is most relevant 
ce investigating whether or referable measures are regulateing to amendments? Please collect the kinsmannalistic in particular ce your acceptance.
A)  The case measure flexion of rt.
B)  The case balance of rt.
C)  The Pearson apposition coefficient ? natant rt and t.
D)  The retrogression coefficient ce t in a rectirectistraight retrogression with rt as the counter-proof inconstant and t as the explanatory inconstant.
E)  The retrogression coefficient ce rt in a rectirectistraight retrogression with rt as the explanatory inconstant and t as the counter-proof inconstant.
Whole 2: Bayes’ rule
A con-balance was conducted to assess the sensitivity and specificity of foul-mouthed be-unlikeent pertinencynal immunodeficiency virus (HIV) serology touchstones (Koblavi-D`eme et al. 2001). The Determine touchstindividual was natant the foul-mouthed, it was exposed by Abbott Laboratories (an American collectr of gaugeness heed, medical devices and pharmaceuticals) and was establish to keep a penny indirect blame (the penny indirect blame is as-well circumvented specificity) of 99.4% and a penny settled blame (the penny settled blame is as-well circumvented sensitivity) of 100%. The penny indirect blame of a touchstindividual ce a indisposition is the verisimilitude that someindividual outside the indisposition touchstones indirect. The penny settled blame of a touchstindividual ce a indisposition is the verisimilitude that someindividual with the indisposition touchstones settled. HIV may be epidemic from an expecting perpetrator to their cadet by transmission during cadetnobility or by transmission to the fetus during pregnancy (throughout, exhibit that there’s no other practice ce a newborn to be depraved). Tenor by the drugs zidovudine or nevirapine has been shown to weaken the blame of these sorts of transmission of HIV by 38% to 50% in the failure of other mediation (Koblavi-D`eme et al. 2001).
a) Suppose that an expecting perpetrator is depraved with HIV and they are treated with zidovudine or nevirapine during pregnancy. Suppose that behind they grant nobility, a Determine serology touchstindividual reports a settled touchstindividual ce HIV. What is the verisimilitude that the cadet does referable keep HIV? Round your acceptance to the rectidirect 10-th of a percent.
 (6 points) 
b) UNAIDS (an construction limitical by the United Nations Economic and Social Conclave) estimates the power of HIV in Cˆote d’Ivoire natant crowd elderly 15-49 to be 2.6%. If a Determine serology touchstindividual reputed a settled touchstindividual ce HIV in someindividual separated uninterruptedly at wild natant every crowd in Cˆote d’Ivoire elderly 15-49, what is the verisimilitude that the idiosyncratic does referable keep HIV? Round your acceptance to the rectidirect 10-th of a percent.
(4 points)
c) In the USA, according to the Centers ce Indisposition Repress (a generally-known gaugeness fix amid the United States Department of Gaugeness and Pertinencynal Services), if someindividual has a settled serology touchstindividual ce HIV they are referable diagnosed as HIV-settled until a cooperebuke follow-up touchstindividual as-well yields a settled touchstindividual end. What is the verisimilitude that someindividual is awry diagnosed as HIV-settled (i.e., if someindividual is referable depraved with HIV, what is the verisimilitude that their principal touchstindividual and as-well their cooperebuke follow-up touchstindividual are twain settled)? Suppose that twain touchstones are Determine serology touchstones, and as-well exhibit that the touchstindividual ends are statistically fractions. Express your acceptance in expected enumeblame of events in a darling (i.e. celebrity relish ‘a 36 in a darling chance’ or ‘a individual in a darling chance’). As-well: In individual doom, what is a practicable proof as to why the impudence of insurrection of the brace touchstindividual ends potentiality be evil-doing? (Your proof does referable keep to be gauge, except it must be efficient outside entity tautological).
 (3 points) 
d) What is the verisimilitude that an HIV depraved expecting perpetrator transmits HIV to their cadet either during cadetnobility or through transmitting HIV to the fetus during pregnancy, grantn that the perpetrator has referable common tenor with the drugs zidovudine or nevirapine, and in the failure of other mediation, according to the introductory of this whole (in concordance with Koblavi-D`eme et al. 2001)?
(2 points)

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